Across the Deep Blue Sea: The Saga of Early Norwegian Immigrants

Across the Deep Blue Sea investigates a bankruptcy in Norwegian immigration heritage that hasn't ever been absolutely advised sooner than. extraordinary S. Lovoll relates how Quebec, Montreal, and different port towns in Canada turned the gateway for Norwegian emigrants to North the US, exchanging ny because the major vacation spot from 1850 till the past due 1860s. in the course of these years, ninety four percentage of Norwegian emigrants landed in Canada.
 
After the advent of unfastened exchange, Norwegian crusing ships engaged within the profitable bushes alternate among Canada and the British Isles. Ships carried trees a technique around the Atlantic and emigrants at the manner west. For the overwhelming majority touchdown in Canadian port towns, Canada turned a hall to their ultimate locations within the higher Midwest, basically Wisconsin and Minnesota. Lovoll explains the institution and failure of Norwegian colonies in Quebec Province and can pay due recognition to the tragic destiny of the Gaspé settlement.
 
A own tale of the emigrant adventure handed down as kin lore is retold right here, supported via huge examine. the adventure south and payment within the higher Midwest completes a hugely human narrative of the travails, patience, mess ups, and successes of people that sought a greater existence in a brand new land.

bizarre S. Lovoll, professor emeritus of background at St. Olaf university and recipient of the Fritt Ords Honnør for his paintings on Norwegian immigration, is the writer of various books, together with Norwegians at the Prairie and Norwegian Newspapers in America.

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The account by means of A. Jorgensen falls into this class, yet there have been previous courses like Ole Rynning’s Sandfærdig beretning om Amerika til oplysning og nytte for bonde og menigmand (True Account of the United States for the Enlightenment and good thing about the Peasant and the Common), released in Norway in 1838, and Veiviser for norske emigranter til De forenede nordamerikanske stater og Texas (Pathfinder for Norwegian Emigrants to the USA and Texas), released by means of Johan R. Reiersen in 1844, following a trip to the US to review stipulations there because the consultant of a few those that desired to to migrate.

Fra kjøpmannsrederi til selvstendig næring 1860–1914 (Bergen, Norway: Bergens rederiforening og Bergens sjøfartsmuseum,1981), 3:82–83. One metric ton equals 1,016 kilograms or 2,240 kilos. 19. Vigeland, Norsk seilskipsfart, 130–31, 137–38, 167–209, 253–61; Gøthesen, lower than seil, thirteen; Semmingsen, Veien mot vest (1941), 91–92, 244–45, 416; Semmingsen, Veien mot vest (1950), 2:221; Lovoll, Promise of the US, 17–18; Johs B. Thue, Bergen og sjøfarten. Skipsfart og kjøpmannsskap 1800–1860 (Bergen, Norway: Bergens rederiforening, 1980), 2:81–107; Pettersen, Bergen og sjøfarten, 3:38–45, 68–69, 71–72; Berggreen, Christensen, and Kolltveit, eds.

The remainder medieval wharves known as Bryggen—also often called Tyskebryggen, the German Wharf, with its Hanseatic wood advertisement buildings—are reminders of the foreign contacts town loved. A overseas pressure used to be obvious in its inhabitants via migration from northern Germany, the Netherlands, and Scotland. through the decade 1856 to 1866, Bergen used to be the most important emigrant transport port within the kingdom. The shipowners in Bergen, although, engaged more and more within the increasing alternate with the USA and had much less curiosity within the mixed emigrant and bushes alternate with Canada.

Finnmark’s workplace of Vadsø, at the Varanger Peninsula, turned an incredible emigration region; as many as 673 left town through the 5 years 1871–75, inflicting a inhabitants decline. the various emigrants from Alta and from Finnmark often have been Kvens and converts to Læstadianism. even if they didn't depart the Norwegian Lutheran kingdom church, because the Quakers and participants of the loose Apostolic Church did, they met a lot competition from the proven church and confronted a strict Norwegianization method either in class and church.

Norway, 260–61; Lovoll, Promise of the USA, 22–26, 58–59; Backer, Ekteskap, fødsler og vandringer i Norge, 166, 167. See additionally Magnus Nodtvedt, Rebirth of Norway’s Peasantry: folks chief Hans Nielsen Hauge (Tacoma, WA: Pacific Lutheran college Press, 1965). 18. Berggreen, Christensen, and Kolltveit, eds. , Norsk sjøfart, 2:67–68, seventy one; Vigeland, Norsk seilskipsfart, quote ninety three; Gøthesen, less than seil, 7, 22, 26, 30–31, 33–36, forty, 42–43, 52–53, quote 33; Lauritz Pettersen, Bergen og sjøfarten. Fra kjøpmannsrederi til selvstendig næring 1860–1914 (Bergen, Norway: Bergens rederiforening og Bergens sjøfartsmuseum,1981), 3:82–83.

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